An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all of the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services through a defined application program interface (API).
For the most part, the IT industry largely focuses on the top five OSs, including Apple macOS, Microsoft Windows, Google’s Android OS, Linux Operating System, and Apple iOS.
An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computer’s memory and processes, as well as all of its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer’s language.
Types Of Operating System In 2022
Batch Operating System
Batch Operating system is one of the important type of operating system. The users who using a batch operating system do not interact with the computer directly. Each user prepares its job on an off-line device like punch cards and submits it to the computer operator.
Examples of Batch based Operating System: Payroll System, Bank Statements, etc. Each task is given some time to execute so that all the tasks work smoothly. Each user gets the time of CPU as they use a single system. These systems are also known as Multitasking Systems.
The basic function of a batch OS is to automatically perform jobs in batches. The ‘Batch Monitor,’ which is positioned at the low end of the main memory, performs the principal role of a batch processing system. The development of hard disk drives and card readers enabled this technology.
Distributed Operating System
A Distributed Operating System uses multiple central processors, effectively distributing all the jobs among the multiple processors for better processing. It is a connection between many computers via a single communication channel.
Distributed processing is the use of more than one processor to perform the processing for an individual task. Examples of distributed processing in Oracle database systems appear in Figure 6-1.
Examples of Distributed Operating System: AIX operating system for IBM RS/6000 computers. Solaris operating system for SUN multiprocessor workstations. Mach/OS is a multitasking and multithreading UNIX compatible operating system. OSF/1 operating system.
Solaris – Made for multiprocessor SUN workstations. OSF/1 – Created by the very Open Foundation Software Company and is Unix compatible. Micros – While allocating particular jobs to all nodes present in the system, the MICROS OS ensures a balanced data load.
The multitasking OS refers to a logical extension of the multiprogramming operating system, which allows users to run many programs simultaneously. It enables a user to complete multiple computer tasks at the same time.
Single-User/Multitasking OS: An operating system that allows a single user to perform more than one task at a time is called Single-User Multitasking Operating System. Examples include Microsoft Windows and Macintosh OS.
Multitasking is when one person handles more than one task at the same time. Examples include chewing gum while walking, sending e-mails during a meeting, and talking on the phone while watching television.
Multiprogramming: When multiple programs execute at a time on a single device, it is multiprogramming. Multitasking: When a single resource is used to process multiple tasks then it is multitasking.
A network operating system (NOS) is a computer operating system (OS) that is designed primarily to support workstations, personal computers and, in some instances, older terminals that are connected on a local area network (LAN).
A network operating system is an operating system designed for the sole purpose of supporting workstations, database sharing, application sharing and file and printer access sharing among multiple computers in a network.
Some examples of network operating systems:
include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD.
A Real Time Operating System, commonly known as an RTOS, is a software component that rapidly switches between tasks, giving the impression that multiple programs are being executed at the same time on a single processing core.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an OS that guarantees real-time applications a certain capability within a specified deadline. RTOSes are designed for critical systems and for devices like microcontrollers that are timing-specific. RTOS processing time requirements are measured in milliseconds.
Examples of the real-time operating systems: Airline traffic control systems, Command Control Systems, Airlines reservation system, Heart Pacemaker, Network Multimedia Systems, Robot etc. Hard Real-Time operating system: These operating systems guarantee that critical tasks be completed within a range of time.
Three types of RTOS are
1) Hard time
2) Soft time ,and
3) Firm time. RTOS system occupy very less memory and consume fewer resources. Performance is the most important factor required to be considered while selecting for a RTOS.
A mobile operating system (OS) is software that allows smartphones, tablet PCs (personal computers) and other devices to run applications and programs. A mobile OS typically starts up when a device powers on, presenting a screen with icons or tiles that present information and provide application access.
A mobile operating system (mobile OS) is an OS built exclusively for a mobile device, such as a smartphone, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet or other embedded mobile OS. Popular mobile operating systems are Android, Symbian, iOS, BlackBerry OS and Windows Mobile.
It delegates resources like memory and storage space based on the actions you take on your phone, for example opening an app or making a call. The mobile OS also acts as a foundation upon which other applications can be built, without the need for developers to create everything from scratch.
|Mobile Operating Systems||Percentage Market Share|
|Mobile Operating System Market Share Worldwide – September 2022|
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